A Case of Knightian Uncertainty | COVID-19

Frank Knight, an economist, formalised a distinction between risk and uncertainty in his 1921 book, Risk, Uncertainty, and Profit. In his classic book, Knight introduced a distinction between measurable uncertainty, which he called “risk,” and “true uncertainty,” which cannot “by any method be reduced to an objective, quantitatively determined probability.”

Reverse Migration in India | COVID-19

Post COVID-19 lockdowns in India, thousands of daily wage labourers belonging to the unorganised sector have been leaving big cities in droves. They have no other alternative but to return to their villages though their future there is also bleak. Having no public means of transport, many have left on foot to remote places like UP, Bihar, and West Bengal from Delhi, Mumbai, Ahmedabad, etc. Some have taken rickshaws to reach their destinations.

Impressive Penetration of Digital Payments

Payments are made using payment instruments. Cash, for example, is a payment instrument. So too are cheques. Digital payment is a way of payment which is made through digital modes. In digital payments, payer and payee both use digital modes to send and receive money. Innovation has been one of the biggest drivers for the growth of India’s digital payments economy. Along with the increasing adoption of smartphones, the availability of affordable mobile internet is doing wonders for the digital payments market in India.