The Laws of Eshnunna are believed to be about two generations older than the Code of Hammurabi and the differences between the Code of Hammurabi and the Laws of Eshnunna significantly contributed to illuminating the development of ancient and cuneiform law.
India celebrates January 26th every year as her Republic Day to mark the date when the Constitution of India came into force. The Constitution was adopted by the Indian Constituent Assembly on November 26, 1949, and came into effect on January 26, 1950 with a democratic government system, completing the country’s transition towards becoming an independent republic.
Guru Nanak came to Baghdad with his Muslim associate Bhai Mardana on his return from Mecca and Medina. A hymn, written by the poet and philosopher Bhai Gurdas, part of the holy scriptures of the Sikhs, recounts Guru Nanak's travels with Mardana, their arrival in Baghdad and lodging outside the city. Baba Nanak Shrine or Sikh Gurdwara in Baghdad, which was rediscovered by Sikh soldiers during World War I and was repaired and rebuilt during World War II by Sikh soldiers again; existed till 2003 in good shape.
Ziggurats were built by ancient Sumerians, Akkadians, Elamites, Eblaites and Babylonians for local religions. Each ziggurat was part of a temple complex that included other buildings. The precursors of the ziggurat were raised platforms that date from the Ubaid period during the sixth millennium BCE. The Ziggurat at Ur and the temple on its top were built around 2100 BCE by the king Ur-Nammu of the Third Dynasty of Ur for the moon goddess Nanna, the divine patron of the city state.
The earliest cookbooks found around the world give people today a fascinating look at not only what the people of the time ate but also their lifestyles, mainly of those from the upper class. The oldest known documented recipes in the world come from the ancient city of Babylon. The Mesopotamian recipe book is the oldest and the first documented cuisine in the world, of which only three Babylonian cuneiform tablets are extant today and is a set of cracked tablets engraved by an early civilization’s version of a master chef going back to 1700 BCE. The recipes are elaborate and often call for rare ingredients. The dishes were slow-cooked in a covered pot to make the food extra tasty. Ancient foodies seem to have preferred fowl and mutton.
Karbala is an ancient city, it was known since the Babylonian age. The city is best known as the location of the Battle of Karbala, which was fought in 680 CE between the army of the second Umayyad caliph Yazid I and a small army led by Imam Hussain ibn Ali, the grandson of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, and the Mosques of Imam Hussain and Abbas. The city is considered a holy city for Shi’ite Muslims in the same way as Mecca and Medina. The Battle of Karbala at Karbala.
Although Shaduppum was established as early as the late third millenium BCE, during the days of Sargon of Akkad, Shaduppum didn’t rise to prominence until the second millennium BCE, where it seems to have been a heavily fortified administrative station for the kingdom of Eshnunna, and its name means “the treasury.” Among the tablets from Shaduppum are two with parts of the Laws of Eshnunna as well as some important mathematical tablets, which are not only interesting, but surprising too. There remains much we don’t know about Shaduppum, that we may never know, but one thing is clear: Shaduppum was a city that had a little bit of everything that made it a Mesopotamian city worth a look.
Located in the fabled ancient city of Babylon, adjacent to the Processional Way and the iconic Ishtar Gate, the Ninmakh Temple was rebuilt several times during the reigns of Esarhaddon, Assurbanipal, and Nebuchadnezzar in the sixth century BCE. Ninmakh is the Sumerian Mother Goddess and one of the oldest and most important in the Mesopotamian Pantheon. She is principally a fertility goddess. Ninmakh subsumed the characteristics of similar deities like Ki (earth) and others, and was later herself subsumed by the fertility goddess Inanna/Ishtar.
The Baghdad city was founded in the month of July, 762 CE. Where Iraq stands today is historically known as ‘the cradle of civilisation’. This land, also called Mesopotamia — the fertile land around the Tigris and the Euphrates rivers, saw the rise and fall of great ancient empires like the Sumerian, Babylonia, Assyria, and the Akkadian empire. As Baghdad was built on the trade route which linked central Asia with eastern lands, it became a trade hub with markets offering goods not only from all parts of the Muslim world but from Europe and far off countries like India and China.
Settled more than 6,000 years ago, Erbil Citadel is thought to be one of the longest continuously inhabited sites in the world. The Citadel, which rises some 30 meters above the plain, is surrounded by a lower town that developed in the modern city of Erbil. The Erbil Citadel, locally called Qelat, is a tell or occupied mound, and the historical city centre of Erbil. Over the millennia, the Erbil Citadel has taken shape, each generation building new structures on top of those of the previous generation.